Arkansas River Lowlands

Arkansas River Lowlands

The Arkansas River Lowlands, an area of flat floodplains, cut through the High Plains and into south-central Kansas. While most of the region corresponds to the river’s course from Hamilton County to Cowley County, it also encompasses an area of irregular grass-capped sand dunes stretching south of the Arkansas River.


The soil mostly consists of sand, silt, and gravel deposited by the Arkansas River on its way down from the Rockies. Sand, however, predominates; digging it up has become an important industry in this region.


Arkansas River Lowlands
Little bluestem

Most of the Arkansas River Lowlands region is covered by sandsage prairie vegetation. Species include sand sagebrush, sand bluestem, little bluestem, and prairie sandreed.


Water has long been a major concern in the Arkansas River Lowlands. Irrigation and evaporation pull more water out of the river than the low levels of precipitation can replace. Much of the Arkansas River is dry throughout part of the year, sometimes long enough that crops have been grown in the river bed.


As one travels through the region from east to west, the climate grows progressively drier, sunnier, and windier. Annual precipitation ranges from about 30 inches near Wichita to about 15 inches near the Colorado state line. The growing season also becomes shorter as one moves west.

Arkansas River Lowlands
© 2013 Homestead on the Range


Rangeland and cropland both have their place here, although cropland generally predominates in all but the westernmost part of the region. Winter wheat is the main dryland crop. Thanks to irrigation, however, alfalfa and sorghum are also grown in the Arkansas River Lowlands.

Also of Interest

Although the perennial disappearance of the Arkansas River is usually blamed on irrigation and has long been a bone of contention between Kansas and Colorado, this tendency predates any significant white settlement. It is true, however, that irrigation has sped up the water-depletion process, sometimes dramatically.

Helpful Resource

Windswept Dune
Yes, a photo of a sand dune taken in Kansas!

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By hsotr

Pulling from nearly 20 years of experience, Michelle Lindsey started Homestead on the Range to help Kansans and others around flyover country achieve an abundant country lifestyle. Michelle is the author of four country living books. She is also a serious student of history, specializing in Kansas, agriculture, and the American West. When not gardening or pursuing hobbies ranging from music to cooking to birdwatching, she can usually be found researching or writing about her many interests.