French Alpine

French AlpineThe French Alpine originated thousands of years ago as the direct descendant of the Pashang of Persia, one of the earliest goats to be domesticated. The Pashang traveled to the Alps with the original settlers of this rugged region, and here it adapted to new conditions.

For millennia the goats of the Alps developed as a landrace, the harsh, unforgiving environment having the first choice and final say in what goats would produce the next generation. To survive in the Alps, a goat had to thrive under wild swings of temperature and had to be able to find sparse vegetation on the dry, rocky inclines—and then use it efficiently. Above all, it had to have a sure footing and well-developed sense of balance. This is not to say that human selection did not play a role. On the contrary, goatherds depended on their animals for their own living, so they selected for milk production. It is believed that they may have bred for favorite colors, as well. Ultimately, however, neither characteristic could come at the expense of survival traits.

It was not until the 1900s that the goats of the Alpines began to develop into a breed in the usual sense of the term. Early in the century, the Alpine found its way into many French dairy herds, and thus entered a new phase of development under the guidance of man. Size, uniformity, and milk production were emphasized at this time.

The French Alpine first came to the United States in late 1922, when Dr. Charles P. Delangle imported a herd. With the assistance of his friend Joseph Crepin, France’s top expert on goat husbandry in that day, Delangle picked 19 does and three bucks from the herds coming down from the Alps for the winter. These were shipped to his home in California.

Unfortunately, they were not destined to remain in Delangle’s care for long. Delangle was constantly in disputes with other goatkeepers, culminating in his expulsion from the American Milk Goat Record Association in 1923. Disgusted and in poor health, Delangle dispersed his entire herd. While a misfortune for him, this event was probably a great boon to the breed, as it began the spread of the French Alpine across the country.

Today, the French Alpine is considered an important commercial dairy breed around the world. It is also quite popular across the United States, especially in a crossbred form, known as the American Alpine.



The French Alpine is bred exclusively for dairy purposes. Although it can be kept for homestead milk production, it has been selected for high yields, making it suited for a commercial enterprise.

Excess males are typically raised for meat, but if castrated they can be trained as pack animals.



The French Alpine is both docile and strong-willed, a mixture that often delights its owners. It is friendly and affectionate, making it very rewarding to work with. However, it is also a challenge—the French Alpine has a keen mind and an insatiable curiosity, making it hard to contain. It is not suited to tight confinement, as it will quickly grow bored.

This breed is known for its complex social behavior. While it forms strong bonds with other herd members, it is also aggressive and competitive. Pecking order squabbles are frequent.


French AlpineHealth

Keeping French Alpine goats healthy requires some care and consideration, but is not an insurmountable difficulty. The first thing to note is the breed’s high nutrient requirements. The French Alpine is a high-octane milk producer, which means that it will require ample feed to avoid losing body condition. A diet high in protein and complex carbohydrates is recommended.

Care is also required when breeding French Alpines. Does are technically able to conceive as early as four months of age. However, they are not finished growing by this time, so the additional strain of pregnancy and caring for kids can break down their health. Does of this breed will have much longer, healthier, more productive lives if they are not bred for the first time until their second fall.

Also, be careful with the choice of a buck for your doe. All French Alpines in America trace back to Delangle’s herd of 22, making inbreeding a constant concern with this breed. Keep tabs on the inbreeding coefficients produced by any proposed mating, and always keep track of pedigrees. This is time-consuming work, but is necessary for the genetic health of the breed.

Finally, note that French Alpines simply are not suited to wet climates. When kept in damp areas, they are prone to internal parasites, foot rot, and respiratory ailments. Those in humid regions should consider a different breed.



  • Adaptability to all but wet climates.
  • Hardiness.
  • Early maturity.
  • Longevity.
  • Well-built udders.
  • Long lactations, lasting up to two years.
  • Excellent milk production, the highest annual average of any goat breed.



  • Personality unsuited for confinement.
  • Ability as an escape artist.
  • Unsuitability for wet climates.
  • High feed requirements.
  • Challenge of avoiding inbreeding.


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What is “Raw” Water?

What is "Raw" Water?One of the most recent trends in health is “raw” water.

Simply put, raw water is water that has not been filtered or treated in any way. It may come from a well, a spring, a pond, or directly from the sky, but the point is that raw water is water in an unprocessed state.

Some companies have decided to cash in on the raw water philosophy, bottling unfiltered spring water to sell at amazing prices at health food stores, especially on the West Coast. While this product has proven so commercially successful as to be frequently out of stock in stores that carry it, some customers opt for the less-expensive-in-the-long-term alternative of harvesting raw water themselves. This latter solution has particular appeal to the off-the-grid set.


Health Claims

Raw food has long been advocated by health food proponents. Raw water was a natural next step, and the suggested benefits are quite similar. Just as cooking vegetables, for instance, has the potential to destroy beneficial nutrients, filtering and treating water has the potential to eliminate everything from essential minerals to helpful probiotics—substances that not only promote overall health, but that keep the body hydrated.

Furthermore, raw water advocates observe that regular bottled water is by no means contaminant-free. While there are regulatory limits on the amount of contaminants permitted in bottled water or city tap water, the regulations do tend to lag behind the science, resulting in perpetually outdated monitoring. Furthermore, some contaminants may actually be added during treatment, ranging from fluoride to chlorine to lead leached from pipes. Raw water avoids many of these problems.


Health Risks

Of course, if the good substances, like probiotics, can remain in raw water, contaminants can, as well. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites can all lurk in unfiltered water, depending on its source.

In fact, scientists observe that many diseases and infections in underdeveloped countries come from what health-food buffs are now hailing as raw water:

  • Cholera.
  • Giardia.
  • Dysentery.
  • Samonella.
  • E. coli.

Furthermore, some of the claims made by those selling raw water can be alarming. One company cautions not to leave the water sitting on the shelf too long or it will turn green. Some regard this as evidence that the water is still “alive,” unlike “dead” filtered water. Others feel that the disturbing green color suggests that harmful organisms may be present, while the CDC warns that even water that looks sparkling clear may contain invisible pathogens.


A Final Note

Whatever one may think of the hefty price tag accompanying raw water products sold at health food stores, it is only fair to note that the providers have obtained laboratory analyses of their products. So does that make their water safe? A great deal depends on the integrity of the company—but that’s true with all food and water products.

Those who are interested in harvesting their own raw water should exercise caution. Unfortunately, relatively few homesteaders are likely to have access to a truly clean source of raw water on their property. The fortunate few are encouraged to thoroughly read up on water safety and to test the quality of their water on a frequent, regular basis.

Territorial Kansas Online

Territorial Kansas OnlineLooking for an extensive repository of digitized primary source material related to the turbulent territorial days of Kansas? Try Territorial Kansas Online, a project developed by the Kansas State Historical Society and the University of Kansas.

Territorial Kansas Online displays a wide range of artifacts dating from 1854 to 1861, including:

  • Letters.
  • Speeches.
  • Articles.
  • Pamphlets.
  • Photographs.
  • Legislative acts.
  • Meeting minutes.
  • Sheet music.

There are several ways to browse the content of the site:

There is also a helpful timeline of major events in Kansas territorial history along with links to relevant materials.

Please note that this impressive collection of documents represents a wide range of perspectives, some of them unthinkable to the modern reader. Parents will want to screen the content for offensive language and descriptions of violence before turning their younger students loose on the site. However, studying primary source materials is essential for an accurate understanding of history and of the events that unfolded in Bleeding Kansas. Territorial Kansas Online is an excellent, easy-to-use way to experience these primary sources.


CashmereCashmere—a word that has denoted luxury and comfort since the most ancient times. Perhaps the oldest reference to this fine fiber is in Exodus 25:4, where God requests offerings of goats’ hair (also known as cashmere) to build the tabernacle. The cashmere was subsequently used to make curtains (Exodus 36:14).

While any goat except the fleecy Angora can technically produce cashmere, some goats have been bred specifically for the purpose and excel in both the quantity and the quality of their fiber. Goats raised for cashmere originally came from Tibet, not from their namesake region of Kashmir in northern India. Kashmir was where cashmere was woven into fabric until the late 1800s, when Scottish manufacturer Joseph Dawson perfected a machine to separate the soft undercoat from the undesirably coarse guard hairs. This shifted the center of cashmere manufacture to Scotland and began a rage for all things cashmere.

In America, Cashmere and Angora goats were frequently confused at first. In fact, a Tibetan Cashmere doe may have been part of Dr. James B. Davis’s purebred Angora flock, imported in 1849. The modern-day Cashmere population of America is of more recent origins, however.

In the 1970s, scientists in Australia established a breeding program to develop the perfect cashmere-producing goat based on feral goats roaming the continent. Their results were outstanding, and it was not long before Americans were inspired to enter the cashmere industry. Cashmere goats were subsequently imported from Australia and New Zealand in the late 1980s. This foundation was expanded with the influence of the Spanish meat goats common in the Desert Southwest and carefully selected for quality fiber.

Because of this mixed background, the American Cashmere population is not typically considered a true breed. However, it is a distinct type from the other goats found in North America, being uniquely suited to the production of soft, fine fiber. Both the Cashmere goat and the cashmere industry are new to the United States with a future yet to be determined, but they show great promise for niche marketers.



The primary use of the Cashmere goat is the production of the prized cashmere fiber. This comes from the goat’s soft undercoat and can be obtained either by shearing or by combing as the goat sheds. White fiber is preferred commercially, but there is a growing niche market for colored fiber for hand spinning.

Thanks to their relation to Spanish meat goats, Cashmere goats in America can also be raised for meat. This option is primarily pursued as a way of adding value to animals culled for low-quality fiber.

And, of course, the weed-eating abilities of these goats should not be overlooked, either.



The Cashmere goat, being a close relative of feral goats, tends to be keen and wary and may resist human handling. However, it is otherwise quite calm and manageable, not displaying the fence-jumping tendencies seen in many other breeds. Practically speaking, this means that any fence sufficient for sheep will contain a Cashmere goat.

Also in keeping with its feral background, the Cashmere doe bonds with her kids quite readily and makes a good mother.



The Cashmere goat is very healthy and requires only basic common-sense care to stay in good condition. As a matter of fact, the more naturally this type of goat is raised, the better the quality of its fleece. So let it browse to its heart’s content—it doesn’t need special feed, it just needs to be allowed to be a goat.

Likewise, the Cashmere goat does not need to live in a tight barn. A simple field shelter is quite sufficient. Note, however, that some shelter is definitely required. Cashmere goats need to be able to get out of the rain to stay healthy, avoiding hoof problems and internal parasites. A shelter will also protect very young kids from cold winds.

Cashmere goats are traditionally not dehorned. Not only do their horns provide a good grip for ease of handling, they may play a role in heat dissipation in the summer.



  • Respect of good fences.
  • Ability to survive with minimal shelter.
  • Ability to thrive entirely on natural forage.
  • Adaptability to most climates.
  • Hardiness.
  • Fertility.
  • Exceptional kidding ease.
  • Good mothering ability.
  • High-value fiber.
  • Warmth, comfort, and durability of fiber.
  • Rapid weight gain.



  • Dislike of being handled.
  • Tendency to shed valuable undercoat.

Osage Orange Firewood: A Few Cautions

Osage Orange Firewood: A CautionA quick glance at the heating properties of Osage orange may suggest that this tree is the world’s best firewood (if you don’t mind battling thorns and sharpening chainsaw blades frequently). After all, this dense wood is the hottest-burning firewood east of the Rocky Mountains, producing as much as 32.6 million BTUs per cord according to K-State. That’s enough heat to warp a wood-burning stove without proper precautions to keep the temperature down.

But sitting in front of an Osage orange fire can be anything but restful. Once the wood heats up, the constant shower of sparks can transform your fireplace in a miniature fireworks display.

Sparking occurs when the wood releases sap, which in this species is a thick, sticky white substance containing latex. The sparking increases dramatically if the fire is suddenly exposed to air.

You can mitigate, but not completely eliminate, the spark shower by allowing the sap to dry out before burning. Osage orange dries very slowly, taking from six months to two years depending on the size of the pieces. Note that the wood should be split before drying begins. Dry Osage orange is remarkably like iron.

It’s always best to be on the safe side, even with dry wood. Never burn Osage orange in an open fireplace, and never leave the fire unattended.

2018 Reading Challenge: Kansas

2018 Reading Challenge: KansasA new year—a new reading challenge!

This year, Kansas is the theme. To complete the challenge, you must read 12 Kansas-related books by the end of 2018:

  1. A book about Kansas prior to 1854.
  2. A book about Kansas flora.
  3. A fictional book written by a Kansas author.
  4. A book about territorial Kansas.
  5. A book about Kansas travel.
  6. A book about Kansas fauna.
  7. A book about Kansas in the late 1800s.
  8. A book of poetry written by a Kansas author.
  9. A book about a famous Kansan.
  10. A book about Kansas in the 1900s.
  11. A book of Kansas photography.
  12. A book about a current issue in Kansas.

Here are the rules:

  • Books in electronic formats count.
  • Both fiction and nonfiction books count.
  • You can read the books in any order.
  • Books cannot be counted twice, even if they fit into more than one category.

If you can complete a book a month, you will be able to complete the challenge easily.

Stuck? Sign up for On the Range, our free weekly country living update (learn more). In the last issue of every month, we’ll suggest a book for one of the categories as a hint.

Let us know what you’re reading this year! We’d love to hear from you!

Helpful Resource

The Homestead Bookshelf
Looking for a good book? Start here.


BoerBoer is an Afrikaans words meaning “farmer,” which sums up the history of the Boer goat (literally, “farmer’s goat”) nicely. From the breed’s origins in South Africa in the early 1900s, the Boer has been the choice of enterprising farmers wherever it has traveled.

The Boer was bred solely for meat production right from the beginning. Its ancestors were varied, including native goats from several African tribes and possibly influenced by some genetics from Europe and India. While the origins of the foundation stock may be slightly obscure, the selection criteria were simple—profitable meat production.

After several decades of breed development, the Boer spread to new countries—illegally. A group of smugglers exported frozen goat embryos to New Zealand to be implanted into does available there. The smugglers were primarily seeking Angora embryos, valuable for their production of mohair. A few Boer embryos were in the shipment, however, and these went on to establish a Boer population in New Zealand.

The first Boer goats in America were descended from the New Zealand herds, arriving on our shores in 1993. These goats were instantly recognized as having considerable entrepreneurial potential, not just as the basis of a goat meat industry, but to supply the ever-extravagant exotic animal trade. Prices of Boer breeding stock soared to absurd and unsustainable highs within a year.

Fortunately, the prices returned to sanity fairly quickly as purebred Boer numbers boomed. Today, values for breeding Boers are comparable to those of other purebred goats, putting this breed within the reach of business-minded farmers across the country. It is now common throughout the United States, but particularly in Texas, where a large-scale goat ranching industry has arisen to supply the demand for goat meat coming from immigrants from Asian, Caribbean, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.



The Boer is purely a meat breed. However, because quality breeding stock can still be expensive, most purebred Boer goats are not slaughtered. Instead, they are crossed with other goat breeds to produce less valuable animals for consumption. Most goats actually used for meat are about 7/8 pure Boer.

The other common purpose of a Boer goat is to manage pasture. This breed is good at rustling a living off of scrubby land, making it a good choice for reclaiming low-quality acreage that would otherwise remain useless. The Boer can also maintain high-quality pasture when placed in a rotation with cattle. The goats will clean up the unpalatable weeds left by the cattle, preventing them from taking over.



Boer goats are known for excellent dispositions, being quite even-tempered and docile. In fact, they can become rather petlike in their affection for their people.



On the whole, the Boer is a healthy, hardy, trouble-free goat. However, this record has deteriorated slightly since the breed’s introduction to America. Those who tend to regard their goats as pets have not been rigorous in their selection and culling of breeding stock based on health, while even commercially minded goat-keepers have neglected this important step in an effort to maximize production. It is easy to understand why breeders would want to ensure that their goats have every advantage with regard to feed, vaccinations, parasite preventatives, and other aids, but the fact remains that these practices tend to conceal genetic problems lurking in breeding stock, thus perpetuating bad genes for future generations. This is precisely what has begun to happen in the Boer breed. Fortunately, the downward trend is in its earliest stages and is quite reversible. Buy breeding stock from a goat-keeper who is focused on testing and breeding for health.

Despite the white hair of the Boer goat, sunburn is not a concern. Its skin is pigmented, providing it with adequate protection in even the most unforgivingly hot climates.

One thing that the Boer goat did not develop in its native country was a strong resistance to internal parasites. However, some breeders have focused attention on selecting for this trait with encouraging results. A careful choice of breeding stock will avoid parasite problems for the most part.

Also, Boers, particularly older Boers, can be susceptible to hoof rot, but only when kept in unsanitary conditions. Any appearance of hoof rot in the herd is a sign that an improvement in pasture management is necessary.



  • Easy-to-handle disposition.
  • Respect of most mesh and electric fencing.
  • Adaptability to both extreme heat and cold when provided with a simple shelter.
  • Strong instinct to graze even during adverse weather.
  • Ability to thrive on brushy pasture.
  • Disease resistance.
  • High fertility rate.
  • Ability to breed year-round.
  • High incidence of twins (note that young does usually only have one kid the first time).
  • Excellent mothering ability.
  • Fast growth rate.
  • Heavy muscling.
  • Mild flavor, often compared to veal.
  • Meat tenderness.
  • Premium prices paid by consumers for Boer-influenced goat meat.
  • Marked ability to transmit docility, growth rate, and meat quality to crossbred offspring.



  • Abundance of poor-quality specimens.
  • High feed requirements of goats from show lines (not usually a problem in goats bred for commercial production).
  • Susceptibility to internal parasites.


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7 Cold-Weather Country Living Projects

7 Cold-Weather Country Living ProjectsLooking for something to do indoors on those cold, cloudy days of winter? Put that time to good use with one of these projects:

  1. Set goals for the new year. And schedule time to work on them. When pursuing an objective that requires a long-term commitment, writing down your goal is the first step to making it happen. Planning time into your day for zeroing in on that goal is the second step.
  2. Research a new enterprise. Get a head start on that new project you were contemplating and do some research. Winter is a great time for reading, making notes, calculating budgets, and laying plans.
  3. Plan a garden. Don’t waste a minute of the growing season! By preparing for spring gardening now, you will give yourself plenty of time to create a planting schedule, purchase seeds, and start vegetables indoors.
  4. Learn a new craft or skill. Many crafts typically considered hobbies can be enjoyed for their own sake, but they can often be put to practical use, as well. Hand-knit scarves for the family will be greatly appreciated during winter chores. Original art can be sold for extra income. Woodworking can be useful in hundreds of ways around both the farm and the house.
  5. Overhaul your web content. Are your links (both internal and external) still functional? Is your more timeless content still up to date? Is your about page still relevant? Are there tweaks you could make to your design or taxonomy to make your content easier to find?
  6. Start a reading challenge. Is the weather outside frightful? Sit down with a good book. Taking up a reading challenge is a good way to stretch yourself by reading about topics you might otherwise have overlooked, thus expanding your knowledge base.
  7. Write a book. While you’re reading broadly and acquiring new knowledge, take some time to put your own knowledge into a form that others can benefit from. Research, writing, and editing all take time—what better time than when the outdoor chores have let up a bit?


AngoraThe Angora comes to us from the Himalayas of Asia Minor. Its origins are so ancient that the details have been lost altogether. It is believed to be a direct descendant of some species of wild goat, perhaps the Persian bezoar or perhaps the markhor, famous for its twisted horns.

In any case, mohair, the fiber produced only by the Angora breed, has been a product of value since at least the time of Moses. That the people of Turkey prized mohair is evident in the origins of the word itself. Mohair is derived from the Arabic mukhaya, “to choose or to prefer.” When mohair began to reach Europe in the 1400s and 1500s, the demand increased so rapidly that the Turkish sultan was obliged to place an embargo on the export of the raw fiber to prevent a shortage in his own country. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V attempted to make mohair more available in the mid-1500s by importing a pair of Angora goats, but was not successful in establishing a European population.

In the early 1800s, mohair was once again exported to Europe, but again there was a shortage of the fiber. The Angora breed was upgraded with Kurdish goats in an attempt to increase the population as rapidly as possible. While this introduction of outside blood did improve the size and hardiness of the Angora, it also introduced the genes for undesirably coarse hair, called kemp.

The new, sturdier Angora was successfully exported to other countries beginning with South Africa in 1838. The breed first came to the United States when the sultan of Turkey gave seven does and two bucks to Dr. James B. Davis of South Carolina as a thank-you gift for his work in aiding Turkey in cotton culture. This flock arrived in the South in 1849 along with Davis’s new Brahman cattle. At this time, however, Cashmere and Angora goats were thought to belong to the same breed. In fact, Davis’s new flock may have included a Cashmere doe. This confusion was largely cleared up over the course of the following decade, but probably not before there was some indiscriminate crossbreeding.

At least three more importations of Angora goats into North America occurred during the late 1800s and early 1900s. These goats had been yet again upgraded thanks to a severe drought in Asia Minor that had decimated the population. The upgrade resulted in still hardier goats that could thrive well in America. Further improvements to the breed occurred in Texas, where goats were selected for kemp-free fiber and ease of shearing. The result was that, by 1900, American mohair rivaled the native Turkish product.

Even today, much of the global supply of mohair comes from the United States, particularly from the state of Texas. Angora goats are raised commercially on large ranches in the Lone Star State, but recent interest in hobby farming is bringing the breed to new locations in small numbers. Commercial Angora goats are traditionally selected for white hair. On small farms, however, red, brown, black, and pinto goats are gaining in popularity to supply unique colored mohair to the hand-spinning niche.



The primary use of the Angora goat is to produce mohair. (Note that fiber from Angora goats is not called angora; that term is reserved for the fiber collected from Angora rabbits.) Mohair is an extremely valuable product, especially when direct marketed to hand spinners, making Angora goats a profitable enterprise for hobby farmers and agripreneurs alike. Combine valuable mohair with the breed’s docile personality, and the result is an excellent first business for children, as well.

Seeking to maximize profits from an Angora enterprise? Consider adding value by washing, carding, spinning, and maybe even knitting a garment out of the fiber. Each step can increase your profits considerably.

Angora goats can be raised for meat, although castrating males and keeping them for their fine mohair is a far more profitable use of surplus animals. They are also excellent land reclamation and pasture management tools, as they are quite efficient at destroying brushy undergrowth and eating undesirable weeds. For this reason, Angora goats can be excellent additions to a rotational grazing system involving cattle or horses. If the rotation is set up correctly, the goats will both improve the forage quality and reduce the parasite load for the larger animals.



Angora goats are among the quietest of the species. They are laid-back and gentle, taking regular handling in stride. In fact, they are friendly by nature, and if treated as pets they will willingly become pet-like in seeking and returning affection. Compared to other goats, they are easy on fences and will not spend all day looking for ways to cause trouble.

Note, however, that while Angora bucks are docile, they are still bucks and will behave in unruly and possibly dangerous ways if hormonally driven to do so. Always be on your guard when handling a buck of any breed.

Most Angora does are not particularly good mothers, although there are exceptions. Bonding with the kids is a delicate process, and it is best to interfere with an Angora doe and kid as little as possible at first to prevent abandonment. Once properly bonded, however, the maternal instinct takes over and the doe will keep vigilant watch over her young. In fact, a group of Angora does will take turns babysitting kids while their herdmates browse.



This breed can have a rather delicate constitution, probably because of the high demands that mohair production places on the body. Proper food, shelter, and hygiene are essential for good health, and Angora goats can be more demanding in these three particulars than most breeds.

These goats are very prone to parasites, both internal and external. Flies and lice are major problems, so keep the goats generally healthy and keep them sheared on schedule. Rotational grazing is a must to avoid a buildup of flies and worms in the pasture.

Angora goats need shelter all year long, as they are not waterproof like sheep. Shelter is particularly important just after shearing. This housing does not have to be elaborate, and it does not need to be heated in temperate climates unless there are newborn kids in the herd. The main objective is to allow the goats to escape rain and cold winds. Fighting to maintain body heat will lower the goats’ immune systems, which can leave them vulnerable to serious diseases such as pneumonia.

Pay close attention to the diet of breeding and pregnant does. Most Angora does only have one kid at a time, but bigger does may be able to bear twins if well fed before the breeding season. This supplementary feeding may need to be continued through the pregnancy to ensure the kids are born alive. Likewise, try to prevent as much stress on the doe as possible, whether that takes the form of shipping or cold weather.

Newborn Angora kids require special care. It is crucial that they be kept warm, so a snug shelter is a must. When kids are expected, plan on being at hand during and immediately after the birth to revive chilled goats as needs be. Mildly chilled goats can be warmed with a heat lamp. Severely chilled kids may need to be immersed in warm water for rapid recovery; it is crucial that they be completely dried again, however. Once the body temperature of the kids is restored, they may need some assistance in feeding at first. As they grow, they will become hardier as long as they receive adequate milk and, later on, feed without being bullied by larger goats.



  • Size and temperament suitable for children.
  • Relative safety of horns due to shape and docility.
  • Relative absence of odor.
  • Respect of most fences.
  • Adaptability to most climates.
  • Efficient browsing habits.
  • Longevity if cared for properly.
  • Kidding ease.
  • Extremely high fiber production levels.
  • Greasy fiber, which keeps electric shearing heads cool.
  • High values for mohair, due to its strength, luster, ability to take dye, and many other desirable characteristics.
  • Acceptable meat flavor from young goats in good condition.
  • Lean meat that is high in iron.



  • Expense of breeding stock.
  • Intensive labor requirements.
  • Need for special feeders to prevent contamination of mohair with hay.
  • High nutritional requirements.
  • Susceptibility to internal and external parasites.
  • Lack of hardiness.
  • Low fertility unless managed in small groups.
  • Few kids per doe (generally only one at a time).
  • Extreme fragility of kids.
  • Frequent failure of does to bond with their kids.
  • Low meat yield.


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Now on Kindle Unlimited—The Worst Jokes I Know

The Worst Jokes I Know (and I Know a Lot!)Are you a Kindle Unlimited subscriber? If so, now is a great time to read The Worst Jokes I Know (and I Know a Lot!) for free!

The Worst Jokes I Know by B. Patrick Lincoln is an illustrated collection of 101 Funny Bone Ticklers for Jokesters of All Ages designed to be shared and enjoyed by the entire family.

Young jokers (cards, you might say) will enjoy trying out clean, corny wordplay on their family, friends, and pun pals as they find out:

  • Why is it inadvisable to read the contents of this book to an egg?
  • Why was the ground delighted with the earthquake?
  • And why did the chicken really cross the road?

The Kindle edition features color illustrations (depending on your device).

The Worst Jokes I Know will be available through Kindle Unlimited for six months only.

A paperback edition of The Worst Jokes I Know is also available. Click here for free sample pages.