All posts by hsotr

Free eBook: Growing Corn Successfully

Growing Corn SuccessfullyHere’s some old-time wisdom we can benefit from today!

Growing Corn Successfully: A Treatise on Corn Culture From Plowing and Planting to Harvesting and Marketing by E. S. Teagarden was originally published in 1895 as a protest against a problem all too prevalent in the author’s time—farmers were trying to grow more corn than they could properly manage.  As quantity increased, quality suffered.  Sound familiar?

While this brief work starts as a guide to raising field corn from start to finish, as the subtitle claims, most of the book expounds on Teagarden’s basic philosophy:

Do well whatever is attempted and best results will always follow, whether it is growing corn for the general crop, or for seed, or any other work to be done on the farm, whether in connection with growing crops or raising stock, or in any other of the many departments of farm work.

Teagarden believed that by working on sound business principles farmers could increase their yields and avoid problems like soil depletion.  Accordingly, the methods of seed selection, plowing, cultivation, and even using corn for fodder are explained from the point of view of one who broke with the conventions of his day and made quality his aim.  Throughout the book we find a philosophy we would do well to heed: it is better to do a little well than to do much poorly.

Growing Corn Successfully is a must for those who plan to raise corn, but we all can benefit from Teagarden’s thoughts on quality of work as well.

This book is in the public domain and available for free download.

Chautauqua Hills

Chautauqua HillsThe Chautauqua Hills run in a narrow band (ten miles wide at most) from the Kansas–Oklahoma line up to about Yates Center. Rolling uplands mark the region, and the Verdigris, Fall, and Elk rivers flow at the bottoms of the slopes.



A thin layer of dry, sandy soil covers shale and sandstone across most of the Chautauqua Hills region. Throughout the uplands, rock outcroppings jut from the sides of many of the slopes.



The river valleys historically harbored a thick growth of oak trees, although cedars have invaded more recently. A mixed tallgrass prairie occupies the higher ground. This combination of woodland and prairie is known as the Cross Timbers.



Although the soils are dry, the Chautauqua Hills still have the rainfall and streams necessary to support both woodlands and wildlife.



As with the rest of Kansas, temperatures in the Chautauqua Hills swing with the seasons, ranging from a mean maximum of about 91°F in the summer to a mean minimum of about 44°F in the winter. The region receives over 35 inches of rain annually.

Chautauqua Hills
© 2013 Homestead on the Range


The thin, rocky soils of the Chautauqua Hills are not ideal for raising crops. Most of the land in this region is used to pasture livestock, particularly in the less wooded areas.


Also of Interest

Although the Chautauqua Hills are very similar in appearance to the Flint Hills, there are differences between the two regions. The Chautauqua Hills have sandy instead of clayey soil, and Cross Timbers instead of tallgrass prairie. Topography is another difference. The Flint Hills have more relief and are higher in elevation than the Chautauqua Hills. As far as agricultural purposes are concerned, however, the two regions are fairly similar—grazing is the focus.


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Pros and Cons of Soaker Hoses

Pros and Cons of Soaker HosesCareful stewardship of your water resources is a good policy whether you live in the semi-arid High Plains or along the rivers of eastern Kansas, but balancing conservation with effectiveness can be challenging in the garden. All those rows and beds! What is the most efficient way to water them without eroding your carefully improved soil or wasting a drop of one of your most valuable resources?

In an effort to solve this problem, some of you may be investigating soaker hoses. Experts usually agree that these hoses can cut down on the amount of water wasted in the garden. The question is, are they worth your money or not? The answer will vary from garden to garden. Weigh some of these pros and cons:



  • Water conservation. A good soaker hose reduces water waste by delivering the moisture right to the roots of your fruits and vegetables. Combine the hose with a thick layer of mulch around the plants, and very little water will evaporate from your garden.
  • Soil conservation. A soaker hose in good condition disturbs the soil very little, and therefore will not wash away soil, seeds, or seedlings.
  • Time conservation. Turning on a soaker hose is much quicker and easier than watering by hand. While the hose drips away, you can bring in the harvest.



  • Short lifespan. Soaker hoses tend to deteriorate quickly. As they age, their pores fill up with sediment and lose their ability to seep water. Furthermore, soaker hoses are very fragile. Crimping or stepping on a hose almost guarantees a leak, and this problem will only worsen with age. Always be careful when working around a soaker hose; it is very easy to slice one in half with a hoe.
  • Limited coverage. The primary advantage of soaker hoses—water conservation—can also be a disadvantage if your plants are not growing in conventional rows. Remember, soaker hoses can only deliver water to the ground directly beneath them. Your garden layout is a key consideration in the soaker hose question.
  • Low output. Kansas summers can be hot and dry, causing water to evaporate rapidly from both leaves and soil. During some parts of the summer, soaker hoses may not be able to deliver enough water fast enough to satisfy the needs of thirsty plants. Furthermore, a soaker hose will encourage a plant to grow roots near the surface of the soil. Once the top layer of soil dries up, the plant will wilt quickly because it does not have a deep root system to probe for more moisture.



In the end, you are the only one who can determine whether or not the benefits of soaker hoses will outweigh the shortcomings. If you are in a drought, on a tight budget, or have planted your fruits and vegetables in patches rather than rows, you may need to look for a better way to water your garden. On the other hand, if you only plant in rows and are willing to make repairs as necessary, you may find that soaker hoses are the best tool to help steward your water resources when conditions are favorable. Perhaps you will find that a combination of watering methods is the solution to your gardening challenges.

Weigh the pros and cons carefully, and do what makes the most sense for your unique circumstances.

Getting Started: Part 2—Think For Yourself

Getting Started: Part 2—Think For YourselfIt can be very tempting to align ourselves with an ideology or movement, can’t it?  Usually we’re attracted to a particular way of thinking because there’s something in it that speaks to our deepest beliefs and values, or because it just makes too much sense.

There’s nothing at all wrong with taking an interest in the different ideas and philosophies out there.  The difficulty only arises when we adhere to one man-made (read, “imperfect”) ideology to the exclusion of all others.

When God created us, He gave each one of us a unique purpose to fulfill.  The purpose for one person is not quite like the purpose He established for any other person, just as you and I are not quite like anyone else.  We will be hard-pressed to fulfill the roles He had in mind for us if we adopt someone else’s mission and values.  Once we tie ourselves to an ideological bandwagon, how can we be sure that it’s going to go in the same direction that we were designed to go?

Compare this somewhat over-zealous adherence to ideologies and movements with the situation in the early Corinthian church as described in 1 Corinthians 3.  Basically, the Corinthians were parading about in bandwagons labeled “Followers of Paul,” “Followers of Apollos,” “Followers of Cephas,” etc.  Far from being flattered by the loyalty of his adherents, Paul condemned their folly and recommended a new perspective:

So then let no one boast in men.  For all things belong to you, whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the world or life or death or things present or things to come; all things belong to you.

—1 Corinthians 3:21–22

How freeing!  All things are ours.  Not just the things pertaining to any particular philosophy, whether it’s about financial independence, environmental sustainability, or just simple living.  All things!

With such a wide sphere in which to move, why not make use of it?  Let’s:

  • Make ourselves familiar with as many of the hows and whys of country living as we can.
  • Scrutinize the validity, usefulness, and suitability of each different opinion to our own situations.
  • Compare each new idea with our convictions to see what fits and what doesn’t.
  • Adopt the best, and only the best, from each philosophy.

In the end, we each will have pieced together the information we need to carry out our own unique purpose.


Next week: Part 3 – Persevere


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Free eBook: Beans as a Field Crop in Kansas

Beans as a Field Crop in KansasHere’s a book that can help you grow something a little different in your field or food plot: Beans as a Field Crop in Kansas, issued by the Kansas State Horticultural Society in 1918.

This brief publication starts with a look at the history and benefits of bean-raising in Kansas.  Then follows a guide to growing pinto beans, beginning with the preparation of the soil and continuing all the way through the harvest.  Other subjects examined include pests, crop rotations, and the uses of bean straw.

The rest of the book consists of testimonials from all over the state, but do not skip over this part.  There are some useful nuggets of advice to be mined here.

Short and sweet, Beans as a Field Crop in Kansas is in the public domain and available for free download.

Arkansas River Lowlands

Arkansas River LowlandsThe Arkansas River Lowlands, an area of flat floodplains, cut through the High Plains and into south-central Kansas. While most of the region corresponds to the river’s course from Hamilton County to Cowley County, it also encompasses an area of irregular grass-capped sand dunes stretching south of the Arkansas River.



The soil mostly consists of sand, silt, and gravel deposited by the Arkansas River on its way down from the Rockies. Sand, however, predominates; digging it up has become an important industry in this region.



Arkansas River Lowlands
Little bluestem

Most of the Arkansas River Lowlands are covered by sandsage prairie vegetation. Species include sand sagebrush, sand bluestem, little bluestem, and prairie sandreed.



Water has long been a major concern in the Arkansas River Lowlands. Irrigation and evaporation pull more water out of the river than the low levels of precipitation can replace. Much of the Arkansas River is dry throughout part of the year, sometimes long enough that crops have been grown in the river bed.



As one travels through the region from east to west, the climate grows progressively drier, sunnier, and windier. Annual precipitation ranges from about 30 inches near Wichita to about 15 inches near the Colorado state line. The growing season also becomes shorter as one moves west.

Arkansas River Lowlands
© 2013 Homestead on the Range


Rangeland and cropland both have their place here, although cropland generally predominates in all but the westernmost part of the region. Winter wheat is the main dryland crop. Thanks to irrigation, however, alfalfa and sorghum are also grown in the Arkansas River Lowlands.


Also of Interest

Although the perennial disappearance of the Arkansas River is usually blamed on irrigation and has long been a bone of contention between Kansas and Colorado, this tendency predates any significant white settlement. It is true, however, that irrigation has sped up the water-depletion process, sometimes dramatically.


Helpful Resource

Windswept Dune
Yes, a photo of a sand dune taken in Kansas!


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When the Hens Stop Laying

When the Hens Stop LayingOh, no!  The hens have stopped laying!

Few chicken-keeping problems are as bewildering as this one.  So many variables affect egg production.  How do you sort through them all?

The quickest way to solve a laying problem is to keep good records well before the problem arises.  Every day write down:

  • The number of eggs you gathered.
  • The outdoor temperature.
  • The amount of feed, scratch, and kitchen scraps you put out.
  • Any anomalies that you might want to remember later on.

You should also keep track of the age, breed, and number of your hens.  These records may seem tedious or superfluous at first, but they are invaluable when you are trying to solve a laying problem.  The more information you have at hand, the faster you will be able to sort through the possibilities and arrive at a solution.

But now that you have an egg shortage, it’s time to figure out what caused it.



Optimal egg production requires the right balance of nutrients.  Many layer rations have been concocted to try to achieve this balance, but in the end the chickens know best.  Provide them with access to plenty of fresh grass and bugs, and supplement their diet with layer feed, scratch grains, and kitchen scraps.

No formula can precisely calculate how much you should feed your chickens.  The best way to balance the feed and the scratch is to simply watch what the hens are eating.  If they are just picking at their feed or leaving pieces of grain on the ground, give them less.   If they are devouring one or the other, or maybe even both in the winter, give them more.

After you change the hens’ diet, they should gradually lay more eggs starting in three to four days.  If there is no improvement, you’ll have to seek another solution.



Chickens usually don’t lay well in extremes of either heat or cold.  If your laying problem coincides with a summer heat wave, there isn’t much you can do except to provide your flock with shade and cool water, and ride it out.  In the winter, give the hens windproof housing and plenty to eat.  The scratch in particular gives them the energy they need to stay warm.  Periodically give them an additional boost with a high-protein treat like beef liver or a ham bone with meat scraps still attached.



The age of your hens plays a significant role in how many eggs they will lay.  If your whole flock is more than two or three years old, you will probably notice a sharp drop in production.  In that case, consider buying or hatching some new hens.



Be aware that breed can affect the hen’s laying rate drastically.  Heavy breeds typically lay better in cooler weather, while light breeds prefer warmer weather.  Also keep in mind that some of the ornamental breeds will never be stellar layers even under ideal conditions.

To keep egg production reasonably steady all year long, either buy a mix of hot- and cold-weather layers or choose breeds that can tolerate a wide range of conditions, such as Australorps or Plymouth Rocks.


If All Else Fails…

If none of these variables seem to account for your production problem, thoroughly inspect your flock and their living quarters.  Are the chickens in poor health?  Do you see signs of parasites?  Are the hens hiding their eggs in some bizarre, out-of-the-way location?  Is something eating the eggs?

If you see chickens with yolk on their heads, you’ve got a real problem.  The egg-eating habit is difficult to stop, so take pains not to let it start.  Make sure your hens have enough fresh range to keep them entertained and enough feed and scratch to keep them full.  Pad the nesting boxes with plenty of straw to avoid accidental breakages.  Setting out a pan of oyster shell as a calcium supplement will also help to keep eggshells from cracking.

If you break an egg in the chicken pen, don’t let the hens clean it up.  Bury it with dirt or hay before they can eat it and get any not-so-funny ideas.  Sometimes a hen will acquire a taste for fresh egg and become an inveterate offender.  When this happens, your only choice is to remove it from the flock.

Again, the best way to solve an egg production problem is to keep good records well before the problem starts.  That way if laying rates suddenly start on a downward spiral, you’ll have a much better chance of identifying the difficulty and solving it quickly.

Getting Started: Part 1—Live Debt Free

Are you new to country living?  Just starting out or maybe taking a deep breath before making the jump?  Never fear!  Over the next four weeks you’ll find tips to make your country living adventure a success.


Getting Started: Part 1—Live Debt FreeAmerica has long been known as a free nation, but most Americans have gradually grown accustomed to slavery in a variety of forms.  Debt is one of the most common.  Perhaps that is because as a society we want what we want when we want it—and when we want it is usually NOW!  We never pause to think about the long-term blessings we are imperiling in our haste to achieve short-term gratification.

Romans 13:8 commands:

Owe no one anything, except to love each other….

This pretty much precludes taking on debt.  But do not view this command as a hindrance.  As with all Biblical injunctions, it is actually in our best interest to keep it.

Proverbs 22:7 notes:

The borrower is the slave of the lender.

How true!  And yet how often overlooked!

Think about it.  Any lender has some level of control over your money.  To pay him back, you must forfeit some part of your income.  But this is not all.  If you owe money, you are under an obligation to pay it back.  That means that you must manage your time in a way that fulfills your obligation, even if it means taking a job you didn’t necessarily want.  Even your life is now under your creditor’s control!


Case Study

Those of you who are familiar with Laura Ingalls Wilder’s books may remember Pa’s experience with debt from On the Banks of Plum Creek.  Anxious to move out of a dugout and into a real house, Pa planted some wheat, hurried off to town, and returned home with machine-sawn lumber, glass windows, and a new stove.

“But the wheat’s hardly up yet!” Ma said.

“That’s all right,” Pa told her.  “They let me have the lumber, and we’ll pay for it when we sell the wheat.”

Fast-forward to harvest time.  Pa declared that he had never seen such a wheat crop.  There was only a week to go before it would be ready to bring in.  Suddenly, the sun was blocked out by a cloud…a cloud of grasshoppers!  In only a short time, the wheat field was utterly devastated.

In order to pay his debt, Pa made his way east, walking three hundred miles to find a job harvesting someone else’s wheat instead of staying home to provide for his own family.  He had sacrificed his freedom for a new house.  Furthermore, his wife and children had to shift for themselves until his return that winter.


Questions to Ask Yourself

Freedom is a gift from God, too precious to be sacrificed lightly.  Before you take on any debt, seriously consider these questions:

  • Am I taking on debt to reach a lasting goal or to gratify a temporary desire?
  • Is it possible to commit to working and saving for this thing I want to purchase?
  • What are the pros and cons of saving up until I can buy it outright?
  • Do I have the self-discipline necessary to avoid falling into a debt lifestyle?
  • Is the return I will make on my investment worth the extra money I will pay in interest?
  • What plans will I need to make to pay off my debt and regain the full use of my resources?
  • Do I have sufficient cash reserves to handle a large, unforeseen expense?
  • Am I positive that, regardless of what happens, I will always be able to meet my obligations?
  • What is my fallback plan in case of financial difficulty?

True, by living debt free you may have to settle for less acreage and an older tractor at first, but at least all your resources will belong to you until you can save for something better.  Your time and money will be your own with which to pursue your vision and fulfill your life’s purpose.


Next week: Part 2 – Think For Yourself


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