VitaminsAnimals need more than just fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Vitamins play a tremendous role in their health.

Although no one fully understands vitamins and their functions at present, scientists continue to make breakthrough discoveries in this important area of study. In this guide, we will summarize the findings to date. We will examine the known functions of each vitamin and its natural sources. We will examine the causes and signs of deficiency, as well as the symptoms of toxicity (overdose). To wrap things up, we will briefly discuss some of the medicinal uses people have found for each vitamin.

Please note that content regarding medical conditions and treatment is provided for general information purposes only, and is not to be construed as legal, medical, or professional advice. Consult your veterinarian for advice regarding your specific animal’s needs.


Vitamin A (Retinol)Vitamin A (Retinol)


Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)


Vitamin B3 (Niacin)Vitmain B3 (Niacin)


Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)


Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)


Vitamin B7 (Biotin)Vitamin B7 (Biotin)


Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)


Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)




Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)


Vitamin D (Calciferol)Vitamin D (Calciferol)


Vitamin E (Tocopherol)Vitamin E (Tocopherol)


Vitamin KVitamin K